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Mishna Shabbat. Chapter 1. The Sabbath Domain
1. Exiting on Shabbat? This of two types but can be seen as four with respect to those who are inside going out, and so also for those who are outside but going in . What are some examples? Let us say that a poor person stands outside and the householder is inside. If the poor person extends his or her hand, whether to place something in the hand of the householder or to take something therefrom, the poor person is liable but not the householder. If, however, the action is initiated by the householder, who either places something in the hand of the poor person or withdraws something from it, the householder is liable while the poor person is exempt. Moreover, both are exempt if the transaction occurs within the boundary, regardless of who initiates the action.
2. It’s inappropriate to have your hair styled if Minha will pass by without your saying it. This applies also to entering a bath-house or a tannery. Neither must one dine or hold court . If a meal or proceeding is already under way? One need not interrupt. The Shma? Whatever one is doing must cease to say Shma but this is not so for Tefila.
3. A tailor should not go about with a needle close to nightfall because he or she may forget going forth, and so also for a stenographer carrying a stylus . One should not inspect the clothes or read by lamplight . We have heard it said that the children may do so and their supervisor may look in upon them, though not to read by the lamplight. A man who has a discharge may not eat with a woman who has a discharge: this can lead to sin.
4. And these halakhot are among the 18 decided when the Sages were gathered in Hanan’ya Ben Hizqi’ahu Ben-Guryon’s upper story. Voting took place and Bet Shahm’I formed a majority over Bet Hillel.
5. Bet Shahm’I have decreed that ink, paints or bitter vetch may not be soaked unless they completely absorb before the onset of Shabbat. Bet Hillel permits this.
6. Bet Shahm’I maintain that wet flax may not be placed in an oven unless the moisture will evaporate before Shabbat begins . Nor may one begin to dye wool unless the dye can become fast to the wool before Shabbat begins. Bet Hillel permits . Bet Shahm’I maintain that net-trapping wild game and birds, or netting fish, must not be done as erev Shabbat approaches. Bet Hillel permits.
7. Bet Shahm’I says “One does not do business with an akum , whether to load the burden animal or adjust a personal bundle unless it is quick to travel to a nearby place. The school of Hillel permits.
8. Bet Shahm’I state “Skins may not be treated, nor vessels washed, by a foreigner unless the treatment may be completed before Minha of erev Shabbat. So long as the sun is stil up, however, Bet Hillel permits.
9. Rabban Shimon Ben-Gamaliel spoke to the issue of non-Jewish labour when he said “It is an ancestral practice in my house to ensure our white washing is given to the foreign launderers three days before Shabbat . They agree on this: Loading beams used for the olive-press or vine-press screens is permitted.
10. Do not roast meat, onion, or egg unless the roasting is edible before Shabbat begins. Bread must not be baked, nor cake added to the coals as darkness descends unless the top can be crusted . Rebbe Eliezer sought clarification when he asked “Surely for the bottom to be crusted?”
11. One may insert the Passover lamb for roasting in an oven even if darkness is approaching . One may add wood in the furnace room and even kindle the wood therein, but elsewhere kindling can only occur from an existing flame consuming the greater part of the taper used to kindle from. Rebbe Yehuda, however, permitted any quantity of charcoal to be considered a taper.