Mishna Shabbat 2

Read it in Hebrew has the full Hebrew text. It opens a new window so you can compare the English & Hebrew.

1. With what, precisely, may we light – and what is prohibited for lighting? We may not light with bast fibres and neither with uncombed flax, floss-silk, willow-fibre, nettle fibre, nor with water- weeds . And thus also for pitch, liquid wax, cotton-seed oil, consecrated oil used as a Temple offering but now defiled and consigned as waste, nor with the fatty part of a sheep’s tail, and certainly not from tallow . Nahum of Medi’a permits boiled tallow but the Sages prohibit all tallow, whether boiled or not.
2. On yom tov? We may not light with consecrated oil. The honour of Shabbat precludes us, according to Rebbe Ishma’el, from using tar. The Sages? They permit many types of oil: sesame, nut, radish-seed, fish, bitter-apple ; and also tar and naphtha. Not Rebbe Tarfon: He permits only olive oil.
3. No part of a tree, other than flax, may be used as a wick; … If a wick is fashioned from fabric folded but not singed? Rebbe Eliezer says it may become impure: it is useless as a wick. Rebbe Akiba says it remains clean and useful.
4. One may not feed oil through a perforated egg-shell to fuel a wick; the same is so for an earthenware vessel. Rebbe Yehuda? Allowed. If the potter had originally joined the two parts? Allowed: it is actually one vessel. One may not draw oil from an adjoining bowl. Rebbe Yehuda? Allowed.
5. Extinguish the light, due to fear of heathens, robbers, evil spirits, or to enable a sick person to sleep? Absolved. To spare the lamp, the oil, or the wick? No. This breaches Shabbat. Other than saving the wick Rebbe Yose absolves: by extinguishing it one converts it to a coal .
6. It is imperative that women be scrupulous with respect to their time of separation, the baker’s tax , and lighting the Shabbat lamp.
7. Three things must be top of mind in a home just prior to Shabbat eve: The tithes, the Shabbat limits, and the Shabbat lamp. Is there a doubt if darkness has descended? If so, we may not tithe what we know is yet to be tithed. We may not immerse kélim. We may not light the Shabbat lamp. When we are certain as to the status of untithed produce, we may tithe. We may establish the éruv and prepare hot foods.